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  河南工业职业技术学院   摘要:本文以电影《德拉库拉2000》为切入点,在现阶段研究的基础上分析了西方吸血鬼文化的起源,总结了该文化的成因,并探讨了中国观众在欣赏此类作品时应具有的态度。
  关键词:《德拉库拉》象征《德拉库拉2000》吸血鬼文化
  1.Introduction
  We currently live in a pop culture world that seems obsessed with vampires.From gothic vampire novels,to endless movies,television and art,the vampire archetype continue to grow in popularity and sophistication.Dracula 2000,is a horror film written and directed by Patrick Lussier,which builds upon Bram Stoker"s 1897 novel Dracula,with Count Dracula resurrected in the year 2000.The movie was a critical and commercial disappointment,though it gained a cult following which resulted in two direct-to-video sequels.
  2.The Vampire Legends
  Vampire legends have existed all around the world.The famousDracula is thought to be from the Transylvania region of Romania.Different vampires from different regions differed in their appearances.For example,vampires from Bulgaria had one nostril;whereas,those from Transylvania were pale and had long fingernails.In Chinese culture,it was believed that if a cat or dog jumped over a dead body,the body would turn into an undead.In Russian folklore,vampires were witches who once rebelled against the church,when they were alive.In Egyptian mythology,Goddess Sekhmet was said to be blood thirsty.The Persian civilization was the first to have had stories of blood-drinking creatures.
  3.The Prevalent Cause of Vampire Culture
  3.1.The Religion Cause
  Here,in the face of a culture“devoid of spiritualism,”we find a vampire quite devout in his spiritual beliefs.True,he may not be Catholic or Buddhist or Jewish,but he is spiritual and therein lies an important difference.The vampire in the modern era has established a unique relationship with religion and spirituality.Instead of being hunted and condemned by it,some vampires are now acting in the role of aggressor.They are searching within themselves and within the culture around them for some level of understanding of God.In the modern era,the vampire has been used to illustrate spirituality in its many forms and thus reflects the religious identity of modern Western culture.
  3.2.The Diseases Cause
  One of the most interesting“vampire diseases”is porphyria.Porphyria is a rare disease characterized by irregularities in production of heme,an iron-rich pigment in blood.People with the more severe forms of porphyria are highly sensitive to sunlight,experience severe abdominal pain and may suffer from acute delirium.Some porphyria sufferers do have reddish mouths and teeth,due to irregular production of the hemmed pigment.
  3.3.The Reality Cause
  While these conditions might have fueled a fear of the undead,the root causes of vampire lore are most likely psychological rather than physical.Death is one of the most mysterious aspects of life,and all cultures are preoccupied with it to some degree.One way to get a handle on death is to personify itand to give it some tangible form.At their root,Lamastu,Lilith and similar early vampires are explanations for a terrifying mystery,the sudden death of young children and fetuses in the womb.The Strigoi and other animated corpses are the ultimate symbols of death,they are the actual remains of the deceased.
  4.Conclusion
  The vampire is one of the oldest,most resilient archetypes in modern media.It has existed in a variety of forms in nearly every culture around the world.Historically,vampire lore has reflected the values and social structures of the culture it has existed in.
  References
  [1]Auerbach,Nina.Our Vampires,Ourselves,Chicago:University of Chicago Press,1995.
  [2]Bunson,Matthew.The Vampire Encyclopedia.New York:Three Rivers Press.1993.
  [3]Dundes,Alan Ed.The Vampires:A Casebook,Chicago:University of Wisconsin Press.1998.
  [4]戴煜.《德拉库拉》在吸血鬼文学中的意义[J] .《剑南文学:下半月》2009.10.
  [5]邵小晗.绝不是一场简单的血腥饕餮[J] .《电影评介》2010.20.
  [6]郝钰.论布拉姆?斯托克《德库拉》中吸血鬼及其隐含意义[J] .《中国科技创新导刊》2007.10.(责任编辑:杨 辉)
  

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